The prohibition concerns officials whose acts have violated principles contained in the Brazilian constitution: democracy, human dignity and human rights, according to the announcement.
The government will prepare a list of the names of the officials in question.
It was not known if the list would be made public.
It was the first time that Brazil adopted unilateral sanctions against another country, according to daily O Globo. Colombia, Argentina, and Peru have adopted similar measures against Maduro, who is facing a campaign by the U.S.-backed opposition to oust him from power.
The president won a second term in an election boycotted by most of the opposition last year, and has presided over an economic meltdown.
Opposition leader Juan Guaido declared himself interim president in January and won the support of dozens of countries.
U.S. President Donald Trump meanwhile said his administration was maintaining contacts with the Maduro regime on several levels, including a very high level.
Edited by Emmanuel Yashim