The ministry said in a statement that the two sides had “constructive” and “in-depth” talks, which would continue in September in the U.S.
It also said China discussed purchasing more agricultural goods from the U.S. but gave little other information.
The statement followed the conclusion of talks between U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin with Chinese Vice Premier Liu He in Shanghai on Wednesday afternoon.
The meeting marked the twelfth round of trade talks since the U.S.-China trade war broke out last year.
On Tuesday, U.S. President Donald Trump also downplayed the chances of progress and insisted that the U.S. has the upper hand because economic growth is slowing in China.
The U.S.-China talks follow a trade war detente brokered by Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping at the G20 summit in Osaka last month.
Prior to the G20 truce, Trump had threatened to impose tariffs on an additional 325 billion dollars’ worth of Chinese imports, which would mean almost all Chinese goods imported into the U.S. would carry punitive tariffs.