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FGM inhuman, cruel and violation of girl-child’s rights – Medical Practitioner

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Juliet Ofor, a medical practitioner with the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Jabi, Abuja, says Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is not only an inhuman practice but a cruel and violation of the girl-child’s rights to health.

Ofor said this in an interview with Nigeria News Agency on Thursday in Abuja.

The medical practitioner said FGM was internationally recognised as a violation of the right of girls and women.

She added that the act reflected deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constituted an extreme form of discrimination against women.

It involves the partial or total removal of external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons with attendant health dangers.

She explained that it was always carried out on minors which according to her, is a violation of the rights of such children.

“The practice also violates a person’s rights to health, security and physical integrity.

“The right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.”

She raised alarm over the risks of FGM with increasing severity, saying that the amount of tissue damaged and the resultant effect increased health risk.

According to her, FGM is capable of subjecting the girl to severe pain, excessive bleeding, genital tissue swelling, fever and tetanus.

She noted that women could develop health challenges like vaginal problems ranging from discharge, itching, bacterial vaginosis and other infections, menstrual problems as a result of FGM.

The medical practitioner, who said that FGM could impede satisfaction in sex, noted that psychological problems, has depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem as its consequences.

She, however, advocated a collaboration of stakeholders and continued education of the masses on the harmful cultural practice as the way to go in achieving its eradication.

IMO/

Edited By: Kevin Okunzuwa/Hadiza Mohammed-Aliyu

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Covid-19: UNFPA, others raise concerns over FGM during lockdown

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The United Nations Population Funds (UNFPA), has raised concern that the practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) may be forced on women and girls in some communities during the Covid-19 lockdown.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the United Nations (UN) define FGM as “any partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or any other injury of the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons.

Mr Kenneth Ehouzou, Programme Coordinator and Head of UNFPA Cross River Sub Office covering South-South and South-East of Nigeria disclosed this during a tweet chat on the correlation of FGM and Covid-19 organised by an NGO, Wave Foundation.

Ehouzou said the restriction of movement during this pandemic exposes more female to the practice, makes it difficult to track the practice and create more awareness on its devastating effects on the survivors.

“The surveillance of communities is practically impossible and practices could be going on in different communities with impunity.

“FGM may be forced on some women and girls by family members due to lack of social support as a result of this disruption of life to suppress the spread of COVID-19.”

According to him, inadequate or lack of support services increase the risks for women and girls FGM survivors who may likely need attention during this emergency situation.

“This risk is much worse as health support may be limited or non-existent in some cases, especially in states where there are cases of COVID-19, with good number of health workers were either staying at home or not willing to attend to cases due to the fear of contracting the COVID-19 disease.

He, however, explained that existing structures and platforms at the state and community levels had already been set up by the joint UNICEF-UNPFPA FGM program on ending FGM.

“We have community-based child protection committees, community surveillance to monitor communities that have declared abandonment of FGM, delivery of social and legal services to girls by multiple disciplinary team/stakeholders as well as continuous advocacies and community sensitisation.”

Also, a medical expert, Dr Jennifer Braimah, CEO Intensive Rescue Foundation International, an NGO, says FGM affects the physical, mental and sexual health of women and girls.

Brainah added that the practice also pre-disposes the survivors to infections, such as genital abscesses, diseases such as hepatitis B, urinary tract infections, bacterial vaginosis and others.

The expert also disclosed that survivors might have problems with their sex life due to the extra scar tissue from the FGM which may cause pain, especially during sex leading to a lack of interest in sex, vaginal dryness, and lower overall satisfaction.

She added that it may lead to depression and anxiety, painful and prolonged menstrual periods, urinary problems, Vesico Vaginal Fistula (VVF)

Brainah, therefore, stressed the need to create more awareness on the effects of FGM practice, form a coalition of advocates against FGM at the community level, as well as report parents and cutters, who attempt to carry out the practice.

On her part, Mrs Lola Ibrahim, President, Wave Foundation, said the FGM practice was recognised as a human rights violation, hence the need to stop the practice as it affects the health, physical and mental well-being of the survivors.

Ibrahim therefore stressed the need for the government to implement the exit law banning FGM practice to deter others from engaging in the acts.

Edited By: Ekemini Ladejobi
(NAN)

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FGM: No health benefits, only harm – Medical Practitioner

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Dr Juliet Ofor of Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Jabi in Abuja says that Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) has no health benefit.

Ofor said that the practice was capable of harming girls and women in many ways.

She told Nigeria News Agency that FGM involved the removal and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue and  thus interfered

with the natural functions of girls’ and women’s bodies.

She said “generally speaking, risks of FGM increase with severity which corresponds to the amount of tissue damaged; all forms of FGM are associated with health risk.’’

She identified the immediate health implications as severe pain, excessive bleeding (haemorrhage), genital tissue swelling, fever, infections like tetanus and urinary problems.

According to her, the harms also include injury to surrounding genital tissue, shock and death.

The medical practitioner said that the long-term complications were urinary problems, urinary tract infection, vaginal discharge, itching, bacterial vaginosis and other infections.

She added that “the infections also include painful menstruation, difficulty in passing menstrual blood, scar tissue and keloid, sexual problems and childbirth complications.’’

Ofor called for an end to the practice, saying it could also cause psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and low self-esteem.

She commended World Health Organisation (WHO) “for doing a lot toward eradicating the practice in Nigeria.

“WHO provided guidelines for its management and prevention in 2016 and made the additional effort in enlightening health workers on the need for its eradication.”

She expressed hope that the practice would come to an end in the country in the near future.

According to her, the incidence has reduced from 27 per cent in 2011 to 18.4 per cent in 2017 in Nigeria due to education and awareness.

“Some states like Ebonyi, Osun and Imo, where FGM is mainly practised have also recorded reduction.’’

She suggested that programmes should be organised to sensitise people in rural communities where FGM was practised about

its harmful effects.

Edited By: Johnson Eyiangho/Hadiza Mohammed-Aliyu

 

 

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UNFPA trains 200 adolescent schoolgirls on advocacy against FGM

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UN Population Fund (UNPF), under its Youth Participatory


Platform (YPP), on Monday in Osogbo trained 200 adolescent secondary schoolgirls on digital


skill advocacy against Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

Nigeria News Agency reports that the two-day training is in collaboration with


a Non-Governmental Organisation, Value Female Network (VFN).

The students, drawn from 20 schools across the state, were trained on how to use social


media to launch campaign against the prevalence of FGM.

Blessing Ashi, the UNFPA YPP representative, said that the training was aimed at


enhancing digital capacity for students as means of exposing the dangers of FGM.

Ashi, who noted that FGM had no benefit but complications, said it was sad that many


communities in the state still engaged in the age-long practice.

According to her, since social media is a veritable tool in information dissemination,


students will be trained on how to use Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and WhatsApp,


among others, to spread information about the dangers of FGM.

She listed some of the long-term consequences of FGM to include complications during


child birth, anaemia, damage to the urethra and sexual dysfunction.

She urged governments at all levels to strengthen their campaign against the harmful practice.

Elizabeth Talatu, the UNPF YPP Coordinator, Lagos Office, urged students to use the


digital platforms to expose perpetrators of FMG in their communities.

Talatu urged female students to always report attempts by anyone to mutilate them to


Civil Society Organisations and the police, adding that there were laws against FGM in the country.

She also urged government, security agencies and the judiciary to ensure the domestication


of laws against FGM in states in order for culprits to be prosecuted.

She added that “UNFPA YPP, Lagos, organised this two-day training for girls in Osun


communities to train them on how to make use of social media to champion the


campaign against FGM.”

Dr Costly Aderibigbe, the VFN team leader, said Osun was chosen for the training because


of the high prevalence of FGM in the state.

Aderibigbe, who described FGM as partial or total removing of the external genitalia of


girls and young women for non-medical reasons, said all hands must be on deck to stop


the harmful practice.

According to her, since the world is now a global village through social media, the training will


help in spreading the ills of the practice.

the girls were


expected to train other girls
in their schools and communities on how to use social media


to expose the ills of the practice.

Some of the students in attendance commended UNFPA and VFN for the training.

They promised to use social media to launch aggressive campaign against FGM in the state.

VE/AIB/HA

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UNFPA supports FG to develop new Policy on Elimination of FGM

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The Joint Programme of United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has supported the Federal Ministry of Health to develop new policy on Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) (2019-2024).

Ms Debora Tabara, FGM Consultant, UNFPA Nigeria, made this known on Thursday in Abuja during a review meeting on the new National Policy and Plan of Action for the Elimination FGM in Nigeria.

Tabara said the new policy would address the gaps which previous National Policy on Elimination of FGM (2013-2017) failed to address.

She added that the new policy was structured to provide better programming toward abandoning FGM in Nigeria.

Tabara explained that the previous national policy on FGM was the national document that guided the enactment of UNFPA and UNICEF Joint Programme for the acceleration of abandonment of FGM in Nigeria.

She added that the new policy would also validate the interventions that would come toward accelerating the abandonment of FGM and other related harmful practices.

Also, Dr Adebimpe Adebiyi, the Director, Family Health, Federal Ministry of Health, said the meeting was to ensure that key players make input into the new national policy.

Adebiyi said the meeting was also aimed at ensuring that the new policy addresses the gaps created by previous policy on FGM and also ensure that Nigeria set the pace in ending FGM in Africa.

“We are trying to ensure that all bottlenecks are removed; synergize with relevant stakeholders and ensure that our policies and strategies in ending FGM left no one behind,’’ she said.

The director said the practice of FGM was totally unacceptable and, therefore, renewed commitments of government and partners to end the challenge in all its various dimensions.

In this regard, the director noted that many countries, including Nigeria, have ratified international conventions and declarations that make provision for the protection of the rights of women and girls.

In her remarks, Dr Cheluchi Onyemelukwe, a consultant with UNFPA Nigeria, presented the draft National Policy and Action Plan on FGM 2019-2024.

Onyemelukwe said the policy was put in place to provide a comprehensive framework so that there would a targeted action for each key player, including the communities where FGM was being practiced.

She added that new policy would, among others, focus on tackling social norms and medicalisation of FGM, where nurses, doctors and other health professionals perform FGM.

The consultant said FGM had several social and health consequences such as maternal mortality; adding that most women who did it have post-partum hemorrhage, being one of the highest cause of maternal mortality.

Also, Mrs Christiana Oliko, Head Child Development Department, Federal Ministry of Women Affairs, said that the ministry was committed at ending Female Genital Mutilation in Nigeria.

Oliko implored the participants to critically look at the emerging issues that posed great hindrance in the fight to end female genital mutilation to come out with best policy document that would fast-track ending FGM.

Similarly, Dr Solomon Avidime, representing the Nigeria Medical Association (NMA), said that FGM was a topic being discussed everyday by the NMA due to its health and social implications.

Avidime, a Gynecologist with the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, (ABUTH) Zaria, said the association would continue to give its best until the final policy document was adopted and implemented.

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NHRC calls for prosecution of FGM offenders

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Mrs Oti Ovrawah, a Director with the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), has called for prosecution of those engaging in Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) to serve as deterrent.

Ovrawah made the call on Thursday in Ibadan during a training workshop for stakeholders on human rights framework for reporting FGM.

The Nigeria News Agency reports that the training was organised by NHRC in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

The director said that FGM was now recognised as a violation of the human rights of girls and women and those who engage in the practice must be prosecuted and jailed.

She said that though the laws prohibiting FGM were in place its non-implementation allowed those practising it to go scot-free.

“The traditional birth attendant, parents and those who carry out FGM must be prosecuted.

“The cultural, traditional and religious beliefs for engaging in FGM are not real and must be abolished.

“The UNICEF survey of February 2019 shows that Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Kwara and Ebony States have 80 per cent prevalence of FGM which is the highest in Nigeria,”Ovrawah said.

She said that NHRC was going round states to sensitise the public on the human rights of women on FGM to check the practice.

Ovrawah stressed that there was the need for continuous enlightenment, especially in rural communities where the practice was rampant.

“We need comprehensive awareness by traditional rulers, various organisations and agencies on effect of FGM so as to eliminate the practice,”she said.

Earlier, Mr Tony Ojukwu, Executive Secretary of NHRC, said FGM was totally unacceptable and had to be stopped in all its dimensions.

Ojukwu, represented by Mrs Ngozi Okore, Assistant Director, NHRC, said Nigeria was a party to several international and regional human rights instruments that seek to eliminate FGM using a range of legislative, executive, administrative and judicial measures.

The executive secretary said that in spite of being party to these treaties as well as relevant national and state laws, Nigeria was yet to make appreciable progress in some states to reduce FGM menace to the barest minimum.

He said that NHRC being a promoter and protector of human rights in Nigeria was ready to provide both leadership and direction to tackle the menace.

Ojukwu added that the leadership and direction would ensure that all relevant stakeholders acquire the necessary capacity to assist Nigeria fulfil its national and international human rights obligations.

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UNICEF, NOA record successes in FGM/C abandonment, sensitisation in Imo

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The NOA Director in Imo, Mr Vitus Ekeocha, said this at a programme organised by the agency with support from UNICEF held at Oguta and Ikeduru LGAs of Imo  on Thursday.

The Nigeria News Agency reports that the programme held in collaboration with UNICEF Enugu Field Office had its theme as “Advocacy Dialogue with Traditional Leaders for FGM Abandonment.”

Ekeocha said that so far, the team had achieved 100 per cent compliance in Ngor-Okpala LGA with the traditional rulers and other stakeholders unanimously agreeing to abandon the practice.

He said advocacy meeting with over 100 traditional rulers in Oguta and Ikeduru LGAs was to further sensitise the leaders to the need for them to unanimously abandon FGM in their communities as witnessed in Ngor-Okpala.

He said that the agency,  in collaboration with partner agencies, had held series of advocacy meetings, trainings and established technical committees since 2017 in the LGAs all geared against FGM.

“FGM is harmful and against the right of a girl-child biologically and health-wise.

“The female genital plays a very important role which is destroyed when it is cut. We came to get a consensus from the traditional rulers; we want to have their agreement and how they intend to abandon the practice.

“The Imo state FGM (Prohibition) Law 2017 encourages Ministry of Health, Ministry of Gender Affairs, Ministry of Information and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) to educate people about the harmful effects of FGM and what the law stipulates for offenders’’, he said.

He defined FGM as all “procedures that involves the partial or total removal of the external genitalia of the woman or girl-child with consequences such as pain, loss of blood leading to anemia, difficulty in child delivery, infection (HIV, Hepatitis) and keloid formation’’.

Mbakwem, however, said the prevalent rate of FGM practice in Nigeria and Imo in particular had reduced due to the awareness creation by NOA in the various communities regarding the inherent dangers since 2015.

Earlier, Dr Oby Azubuike of the Ministry of Gender Affairs, Imo State, said the meeting was to provide a space for traditional rulers to agree to abandon the practice and sensitise their communities toward the same goal.

She said it was also to ascertain the communities’ readiness for public declaration to end FGM and to discourage and convince those that might want to continue with the practice.

Responding, the traditional rulers commended NOA and UNICEF for the awareness creation on the dangers of FGM.

They said that it was their duty as traditional rulers and as custodians of culture to legislate on and discourage FGM.

His Royal Highness, Eze Fatai Emetumah, Offor the 9th of Umuofor Ancient Kingdom in Oguta LGA, described FGM as an archaic practice that should be prohibited because of the negative tendencies associated with it.

He said both Quran and Bible never recommended circumcision for female child and promised to engage in serious sensitisation to his subjects on the dangers of female circumcision and to report any offender to the appropriate quarters.

The traditional ruler of Obudu Agwa Autonomous Community asked for more advocacy visits against FGM, especially during the Women August Meeting in various communities in the state.

He thanked UNICEF and NOA for their efforts so far in reducing the prevalent rate of the practice in the main vocal areas.

Also His Royal Highness, Eze Emmanuel Nwaigwe, the traditional ruler of Uguri Autonomous Community in Ikeduru LGA, said that traditional rulers had come to the understanding that FGM was bad and had resolved to enforce its end.

He said that it was the responsibility of the traditional rulers to discourage the practice and legislate on it.

NAN reports that over 150 traditional rulers and their cabinet chiefs attended the programmes in the two LGAs.

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309 communities declare abandonment of FGM — UNICEF

By Felicia Imohimi
Abuja, Feb. 6, 2019 (NNN) The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) says over 309 communities in Nigeria have publicly declared their abandonment of female genital mutilation in 2018.

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By Felicia Imohimi
Abuja, Feb. 6, 2019 (NNN) The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) says over 309 communities in Nigeria have publicly declared their abandonment of female genital mutilation in 2018.

The UNICEF Country representative in Nigeria, Mohamed Fall, made the disclosure on Wednesday in Abuja to commemorate the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), marked every February 6 yearly.

He noted that 2016/2017 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) showed some decline in the incidence of FGM in the country.

He said that based on the survey 18.4 per cent of women aged 15 to 49 years now undergo FGM as against 27 per cent in 2011.

“UNICEF and partners’ interventions to ensure the elimination of FGM by 2030 has resulted in a break in the barrier against discussing FGM publicly.

“Religious leaders, community stakeholders and young people now speak out against this practice.

“Subsequently, last year, more than 309 communities publicly declared abandonment of the practice.

“Despite this decline, millions of girls and women are still faced with the scourge of genital mutilation every year in Nigeria.

“There is, therefore, an urgent need for decision makers and political leaders to take concrete action towards ending the harmful practice of FGM in Nigeria,” Fall said in a statement.

He identified FGM as a violation of women’s rights to sexual and reproductive health, physical integrity, non-discrimination and freedom from cruel or degrading treatment.

According to him, it is also a violation of medical ethics and a form of gender-based violence.

According to Wikipedia, the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation is a UN sponsored annual awareness day to eradicate FGM. (NNN)
FUA/AOM/PDE
===========
(Edited by Abdullahi Mohammed/Peter Ejiofor)

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UN organisations urge countries to develop action plans to end FGM

By Felicia Imohimi
Abuja, Feb. 6, 2019 (NNN) The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the UN Women have urged countries where Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) was prevalent to develop action plans to end the practice.

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By Felicia Imohimi
Abuja, Feb. 6, 2019 (NNN) The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the UN Women have urged countries where Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) was prevalent to develop action plans to end the practice.

The organisations made the call in a joint statement by Dr. Natalia Kanem, Executive Director, UNFPA, Henrietta Fore, Executive Director, UNICEF, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Executive Director, UN Women in commemoration of the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM.

Zero tolerance for FGM is a global event commemorated on Feb. 6 annually to fight against the customary practice of non-medical genital altering or circumcision of females.

The statement noted that for such plans to be effective, they must include budget lines dedicated to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education, social welfare and legal services.

It harped on the need for institutions and economic communities to work together at the regional level to prevent the movement of girls and women across borders purposely to get them into countries with less restrictive FGM laws.

The statement identified FGM as violation of women’s rights to sexual and reproductive health, physical integrity, non-discrimination and freedom from cruel or degrading treatment.

“FGM is also a violation of medical ethics; female genital mutilation is never safe, no matter who carries it out or how clean the venue is because it is a form of gender-based violence.

“Locally, we need religious leaders to strike down myths that female genital mutilation has a basis in religion because societal pressures often drive the practice, individuals and families need more information about the benefits of abandoning it.

“Public pledges to abandon FGM, particularly pledges by entire communities are an effective model of collective commitment.

“But public pledges must be paired with comprehensive strategies for challenging the social norms, practices and behaviours that condone female genital mutilation,” it noted.

The statement in reference to Mary Oloiparuni’s ordeal said that she was mutilated at the age of 13.

According to the statement, Oloiparuni was restrained in a doorway one early morning in her home, she was cut, bled profusely and experienced agonising pain. The scarring she endured then continues to cause her pain today, 19 years later.

“It has made giving birth to each of her five children an excruciating and harrowing experience.”

Oloiparuni is not alone. At least 200 million girls and women alive today have had their genitals mutilated, suffering one of the most inhuman acts of gender-based violence in the world.

“On the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM, we reaffirm our commitment to end this violation of human rights, so that the tens of millions of girls who are still at risk of being mutilated by 2030 do not experience the same suffering as Oloiparuni,” it said.

The statement noted that efforts in eliminating FGM were critical because it leads to long-term physical, psychological and social consequences.

“FGM is also a violation of medical ethics: Female genital mutilation is never safe, no matter who carries it out or how clean the venue is because it is a form of gender-based violence.

“We cannot address it in isolation from other forms of violence against women and girls, or other harmful practices such as early and forced marriages.

“To end female genital mutilation, we have to tackle the root causes of gender inequality and work for women’s social and economic empowerment,” it added.

The statement urged the media to amplify their advocacy campaigns on social media among other channels that ending female genital mutilation saved and improved lives.

The organisations lauded the collective action of governments, civil society, communities and individuals in ensuring a decline in female genital mutilation, while noting that “we are not aiming for few cases of this practice. We are insisting on zero,” (NNN)
FUA/ECN/PDE
==========
(Edited by Emmanuel Nwoye/Peter Ejiofor)

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UN calls for more commitment to FGM elimination by 2030

This was contained in a joint statement signed by the heads of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Women (UN Women) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) on Wednesday.

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By Christian Njoku
Calabar, Feb. 6, 2019 (NNN) The United Nations has called for more commitment from member Nations to the need to eliminate Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) by 2030.

This was contained in a joint statement signed by the heads of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Women (UN Women) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) on Wednesday.

The statement was signed by the Executive Directors of UNFPA, Dr Natalia Kanem, UNICEF, Henrietta Fore and UN Women, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngouka.

FGM is a procedure performed on a woman or girl to alter or injure her genitalia for non-medical reasons and most often involved the partial or total removal of her external genitalia.

FGM has no health benefits and often leads to long-term medical complications, including severe pain, prolonged bleeding, infection, infertility, death and increased risk of HIV transmission.

The UN noted that about 200 million girls and women have had their genitals mutilated, adding that this amounted to one of the most inhuman acts of gender based violence in the world.

It said the organisation was reaffirming its commitment to end FGM and prevent other women at risk from going through the practice.

“On the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, we reaffirm our commitment to end this violation of human rights so that tens of millions of girls who are still at risk of being mutilated by 2030 do not experience such suffering.

“This effort is especially critical because female genital mutilation violates women’s rights to sexual and reproductive health, physical integrity and leads to long term physical, psychological and social consequences.

“In 2015, world leaders overwhelmingly backed the elimination of female genital mutilation as one of the targets in the 2030 Agenda for sustainable Development, this is an achievable goal and we must act now to translate that political commitment to action.

“At the national level, we need new policies and legislation protecting the rights of girls and women to live free from violence and discrimination.

“Governments in countries where female genital mutilation is prevalent should also develop national action plans to end the practice.

“At the regional level, we need institutions and economic communities to work together, preventing the movement of girls and women across borders when the purpose is to get them into countries with less restrictive female genital mutilation laws.

“Locally, we need religious leaders to strike down myths that female genital mutilation has a basis in religion because societal pressure often drive the practice

“Public pledges to abandon female genital mutilation which are paired up with comprehensive strategies for challenging the social norms are an effective model of collective commitment,’’ the UN said.

The News Agency of Nigeria reports that Feb. 6 each year marks the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation. (NNN)
CBN/AOM/IS
=========
Edited by Abdullahi Mohammed/Ismail Abdulaziz

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Contact US: editor @nnn.com.ng, nnnnews247 @gmail.com

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